Saturday, April 25, 2009

Berlin, Brandenburger Tor ...Βερολίνο, Πύλη του Βραδεμβούργου




DSC03382, originally uploaded by Nassos Kappa.
Η Πύλη του Βραδεμβούργου έχει ύψος 26 μ., μήκος 65,5 μ. και πλάτος 11 μ. Θυμίζει τα Προπύλαια της Ακρόπολης των Αθηνών. Προκειται για ένα οικοδόμημα νεοκλασικού ρυθμού, το οποίο ουσιαστικά ήταν και το πρώτο του είδους, που χτίστηκε στο Βερολίνο. Έχει έξι κίονες δωρικού ρυθμού, από κάθε πλευρά, ύψους 15 μ. ο κάθε ένας. Πάνω στην στέγη της Πύλης του Βραδεμβούργου στέκεται το ύψους 5 μέτρων άγαλμα της θεάς νίκης, η οποία επανδρώνει μια ρωμαϊκή πολεμική άμαξα (λατ. quadriga), την οποία σύρουν τέσσερα άλογα.
Χαρακτηριστικό αρχιτεκτονικό γνώρισμα της πύλης είναι μια αντίθεση με τους κανόνες της δωρικής αρχιτεκτονικής. Ενώ κατά την δωρική τεχνοτροπία ο κεντρικός άξονας των τριγλύφων, που κοσμούσαν την στέγη, έπρεπε να βρίσκεται σε συμφωνία με τον κεντρικό άξονα των κιόνων, αυτό δεν συμβαίνει στην αρχιτεκτονική της πύλης. Αποτέλεσμα είναι να υπάρχει ένα κενό τμήμα μαρμάρου στην στέγη, και να μην τελειώνει η άκρη της στέγης με ένα τρίγλυφο, όπως συνηθιζόταν κατά την κατασκευή των δωρικών ναών στην αρχαία Ελλάδα.
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The Brandenburg Gate consists of twelve Doric columns, six to each side, forming five passageways. Citizens originally were allowed to use only the outermost two. Atop the gate is the Quadriga, a chariot drawn by four horses driven by Victoria, the Roman goddess of victory.
The Gate's design is based upon the Propylaea, the gateway to the Acropolis in AthensGreece and is consistent with Berlin's history of architectural classicism (first, Baroque, and then neo-Palladian). The Gate was the first "Athens on the River Spree" by architect Karl Gotthard von Langhans. The capital Quadriga was sculpted by Johann Gottfried Schadow.

Napoleon in Berlin.
The Brandenburg Gate's design has remained essentially unchanged since its completion even as it has played different political roles in German history. After the 1806 Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-AuerstedtNapoleon took the Quadriga to Paris. After Napoleon's defeat in 1814 and the Prussian occupation of Paris by General Ernst von Pfuel, the Quadriga was restored to Berlin and Victoria's wreath of oak leaves was supplemented with a new symbol of Prussian power, the Iron Cross. The Quadriga faces east, as it did when it was originally installed in 1793.
When the Nazis ascended to power they used the Gate as a party symbol. The Gate survived World War II and was one of the few structures standing in the Pariser Platz ruins in 1945 (another being the Academy of Fine Arts). Following Germany's surrender and the end of the war, the governments of East Berlin and West Berlin restored it in a joint effort. Vehicles and pedestrians could again travel freely through the gate, until August 1961 when the Berlin Wall was erected. The wall and its fortified death strip ran just west of the gate, cutting off access from West Berlin and the "baby Wall" on the Eastern side rendered it off limits to East Berliners as well, until the wall's demolition in 1989.
In 1990, the Quadriga was removed from the gate as part of renovation work carried out by the East German authorities.
On December 212000, the Brandenburg Gate was privately refurbished at a cost of six million dollars (U.S.).
On October 32002, the twelfth anniversary of German Reunification, the Brandenburg Gate was once again reopened following extensive refurbishment.
The Brandenburg Gate is now again closed for vehicle traffic, and much of Pariser Platz has been turned into a cobblestone pedestrian zone.


"A journey of a thousand miles must begin with a single step." -- Lao Tzu
Copyright © Demetrios the Traveler


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